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Constraints on Participating in Leisure
In “Constraints to Leisure,” Edgar L. Jackson and David Scott provide an overview of the field of leisure constraints research in the late 1990s. They point out that researchers in the field originally studied what were then called “barriers to recreation participation,” but the word “barriers” refers to what is now considered just one type of barrier — something that hinders or prevents one from participating in an activity. But now other types of obstacles are recognized, including interpersonal and intrapersonal influences of a person, which lead a person not to participate in leisure. In addition, Jackson and Scott explain that the word “leisure” is used instead of just entertainment, as it is a more inclusive term, and the word “participation” is also omitted, as leisure research is not only inclusive if a person participates in, but what they prefer to do, where, and what a particular type of leisure means to them.
Jackson and Scott also discuss three main ways of looking at leisure that have evolved since the leisure constraints approach began in the 19th century. It began with considerations of “barriers to participation in recreation and leisure enjoyment” based on the assumption that the main issue to be addressed was service delivery, so that people would participate more if there were more service to be provided.
Then, beginning in the 1960s, the focus shifted to looking at how specific barriers might affect the participation of individuals with different economic and social characteristics. Later, in the 1980s, the idea of barriers appeared, and researchers realized that these barriers may not only be external, such as in the form of a facility or service, but may be internal, such as a barrier due to psychological and economic. factors, or in social or interpersonal factors, such as a person’s relationships with his spouse or family.
Since the late 1980s, it seems that three main concepts about the barriers affecting participation in leisure activities have emerged, as described in a model proposed by Crawford and Godbey in 1987.
1) A structural or intervening constraint is one that affects a person from participating in some type of recreation, when the person has already indicated a willingness or desire to participate. As conceptualized by Crawford and Godbey, these structural or intervening barriers are “factors that mediate between leisure preference and participation.” (p. 307). Research based on this concept of a barrier generally involves doing a survey to identify specific things that hinder participation, such as time, cost, facilities, knowledge of the service or facility, lack of a partner for participation (such as a partner participating in a doubles tennis match), and lack of skills or disabilities. The assumption underlying this approach is that a person would participate in any activity if not for these barriers, which appear to be similar to the barriers envisioned when that term was used. In searching for patterns and commonalities, using various quantitative methods such as factor analysis and cluster analysis, researchers have found support for some common structures and intervening constraints, namely: “time assignments , cost, facilities and opportunities, skills and abilities, and transport and access.” Additionally, researchers sought to look at how different groups in society are constrained in different ways, such as women, or groups based on age and income, eventually leading researchers to to recognize that most obstacles are experienced to a greater or lesser degree depending on the individual. and situational factors.
2) An intrapersonal constraint is a psychological state or trait that affects leisure preferences, rather than being a barrier to participation once a person has developed those preferences. For example, intrapersonal barriers that may lead a person not to develop specific leisure preferences may be that person’s “abilities, personality needs, prior socialization, and perceived attitudes of the reference group” .
3) Interpersonal constraints occur because of one’s interactions with peers, family members, and others, leading one to perceive certain leisure activities, places, or services as relevant. or unrelated leisure activities to participate in. For example, based on one’s understandings from interactions with others one may consider certain types of leisure inappropriate, uninteresting, or unavailable.
Although a hierarchical model was proposed by DW Crawford, EL Jackson, a G. Godbey to combine these three concepts in a single model, based on a first development of leisure preferences at the intrapersonal level, then encountered of obstacles at the interpersonal level, and finally encountered structural or intervening constraints, there seems to be no such sequential ordering of these constraints. Rather, they seem to act together in different ways and sequences, although Henderson and other researchers have sought to combine intrapersonal and interpersonal barriers together to become antecedent barriers.
Whether or not such antecedent barriers exist, another way to look at whether people participate in a leisure experience is based on how they respond to a perceived barrier. If they participate and want to participate, that would be described as a “successful proactive response.” If they don’t participate even though they want to do so, that would be considered a “reactive response.” Finally, if they participate but in a different way, that would be called a “partially successful proactive response.”
A good illustration of this response to an obstacle approach might be a mountain climber suffering from a disability. A climber who takes a prosthetic and climbs the mountain himself may be considered to be exhibiting a “successful proactive response.” A climber who decides to abandon the sport can be considered to be exhibiting a “reactive response.” Finally, a climber who is assisted up a mountain by a group of other climbers may be considered to be engaging in a “partially successful early response.”
These ideas about barriers can be applied to how individuals participate in some of the activities I’ve organized through several Meetup groups I run. These include the occasional Video Potluck Night, where people come to my house to watch videos I get at Blockbuster; feedback/discussion group for indie film producers and directors, which can be considered a form of leisure, as most attendees make and direct films in their spare time, often for free, and have other paying job; and several teleseminars on writing, publishing, and promoting books, which are mostly entertainment for the participants, as they hope to publish books, but have other jobs.
Structurally, some individuals may be constrained from attending these Meetup groups due to common structural problems identified, including time commitments, costs, facilities and opportunities, skills and abilities, and transportation and access. . Some people cannot attend any of these activities, because they have another event to go to at that time or they may have extra work, so they cannot spare time to attend. Although there is no cost for the meetings, some people may be constrained by the cost of getting to my house, including gas and tolls from San Francisco, Marin, or the Peninsula, and the cost of contributing something. at the potluck (which many people have to buy because they don’t have time to make something).
Another obstacle is that some people may be uncomfortable about going to an event in a private home. Some may not attend discussion groups or teleseminars, because they feel that their skills are not yet within reach, although they hope to one day become a producer and director or finish their book. Some may not attend because they have access problems, because they have a hard time getting to my house if they don’t have a car, because they have a hard time getting there by bus or BART (which is 1-3 miles from my house according respectively) , and they cannot ride. And if someone is severely disabled, they will have a hard time getting into my house, which is not wheelchair accessible.
Intrapersonal coercion can occur when some people decide not to go because they are uncomfortable with large groups or meeting new people, such as at Video Potlucks, because they not only involve socializing before the movie over dinner but also after will be shared during the introduction and in a discussion of the film after the screening. Others may not come because they are afraid to open up and show the work they have done because they are afraid of criticism.
Interpersonal constraint can occur when some people decide not to go because their friends or family may be doing something else or their colleagues may stop going to the activity. For example, their colleagues may find it interesting to attend and discuss first-run movies in theaters, whereas my video potluck nights feature movies on DVD from Blockbuster that came out about three months later than a theater show. Or their peers may discourage them from attending a director or producer discussion group, because they will discuss their work with others who are similarly trying to break into the industry or making and directing small films as a hobby. Their colleagues may tell them that they should only go to programs where they can meet established people in the industry or convince them that they don’t need any feedback, because their project is already so good.
In other words, these three concepts can be easily used in understanding the participation in the leisure activities that I have organized.
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