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The Parts of a Camera and Their Functions
Photos allow us to capture events and moments in time and keep them for years. This was made possible by the use of Photo Cameras. Camera is a technological device for taking photographic images of objects of interest.
This device consists of three main elements: the mechanical element (the Camera body itself), the optical element (the Lens), and the chemical element (the Film [although there are also digital cameras that don’t make use of the traditional film]). All the other many parts and components that make up a camera only work to support or enhance any of the above mentioned basic functions.
Listed below are the 15 functional parts of a Camera, following which I will explain the function of 10 of them.
1. The Camera Body
5. The Shutter
7. Shutter Release Button
8. Shutter Curtain
9. Shutter Speed Control Knob
10. Extreme Movie
11. Film Rewind Knob
12. Film Sprockets
13. Flash Shoe (Accessory Jack)
14. Focusing Ring
15. Self – Timer Button
(1) The Camera Body: All the internal mechanical, optical, and chemical parts of a camera are held together by the Camera body. It serves to protect these very sensitive parts. The Camera body also serves as a framework through which the rest of the Camera speaks to function properly.
(2) The Lens: The Lens is undoubtedly the most important part of the Camera (considering the main purpose of a Camera). A lens captures light rays bouncing off an object and focuses this light on the image plane so that a real image is formed that can be photographed. Most of the changes and refinements that have taken place in the camera since its invention have centered on or around the Lens, and emphasize the importance of this part of the camera.
(3) The Film: This is a thin roll of light-sensitive plastic that is placed on the image plane of the Lens. When the Camera is ready to take pictures, several devices come together to ensure that the film is exposed to the image formed by the lens. When the film is exposed to the image coming from the lens it records the image, and we have pictures! Before and after use, the film is stored in a light-tight film holder. Unbeknownst to most people, there are no black and white or color cameras. We only have black and white and color films. It is the film that determines whether an image will appear as black and white or in color.
(4) Viewfinder: This is a part of the Camera that helps us decide which object we want to photograph. This helps us point the camera in the right direction and indicate what will or will not appear in the final photograph. Viewfinders are of two types: (1) Those that operate independently of the lens, known as aim-and-shoot cameras; (2) Those that show exactly what the lens sees, found in SLR (Single Lens Reflex) cameras.
(5) Shutter: The shutter determines how long the film is exposed to light or the image coming from the lens. Shutters are of two types: one located just behind the lens, called a leaf shutter; the second type is located in front of the film plane, it is called a focal plane shutter. The shutter consists of two metal sheets or “curtains” that remain closed or closed when the camera is not in use. But when the shutter release button is depressed, one of these curtains opens to allow the image from the lens to strike the film. After a short moment, the second metal sheet of the curtain slides to close the opening. The interval between opening and closing depends on the speed we choose with the shutter speed knob.
(6) Aperture: This is an opening, or hole, in the center of the lens. The function is to cause the image to brighten or dimmed equally. This is achieved by increasing or decreasing the size of the aperture, using a knob called the Aperture Ring. When the aperture is widened, more light passes through the lens, causing the image to appear brighter. Conversely when the aperture decreases, less light enters, so the image or picture becomes dimmer.
(7) Flash Shoe (or Accessory Jack): This is the hook that a flash can be attached to, if one chooses to use a flash and the camera supports it. This accessory is located just above the Viewfinder.
(8) Focusing Ring: When we look through the Viewfinder, it is the Focusing Ring that is used to focus the object. It is more like an adjuster.
(9) Film Cavity: This is the location where the film roll is placed in the camera. This cavity is secured from light. It’s a type of darkroom whose job is to make sure that the only light that reaches the film is the one that hits the lens, and even then only when the shutter is open. This is important because film cannot differentiate between light coming from the lens and that coming from other sources. Without the cavity light from the surrounding area can easily hit the film and distort the image quality.
(10) Film Rewind Knob: This knob is used to rewind all exposed film rolls back into their casing. This must be done before removing the exposed film from the camera; if the negative doesn’t break! Some modern cameras do this function automatically when we get the final exposure.
Summary: Camera helps us preserve memories. Understanding how the different parts of this design work will help us get the best from our Cameras.
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